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Tuesday, 30 January 2018

SURVEYING

The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc. are based upon surveying measurements. Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying.
What is survey for engineers?
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor.

Why surveying is important?
Surveying is important and most of us depend on it so as to ensure order in the physical world around us. Surveyors play an integral role in land development, from the planning and design of land subdivisions through to the final construction of roads, utilities and landscaping

Why surveying is important in civil engineering?
The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc. are based upon surveying measurements. Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying.


Importance of Surveying to Civil Engineers
The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc. are based upon surveying measurements.
Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying.
Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.
Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilised are
•  to fix the national and state boundaries;
•  to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
•  to establish control points
•  to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
•  to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth
Classifications of Surveying
Based on the purpose (for which surveying is being conducted), Surveying has been classified into:
•  Control surveying : To establish horizontal and vertical positions of control points.
•  Land surveying : To determine the boundaries and areas of parcels of land, also known as property survey, boundary survey or cadastral survey.
•  Topographic survey : To prepare a plan/ map of a region which includes natural as well as and man-made features including elevation.
•  Engineering survey : To collect requisite data for planning, design and execution of engineering projects. Three broad steps are
1)  Reconnaissance survey : To explore site conditions and availability of infrastructures.
2) Preliminary survey : To collect adequate data to prepare plan / map of area to be used for planning and design.
3)  Location survey : To set out work on the ground for actual construction / execution of the project.
  Route survey : To plan, design, and laying out of route such as highways, railways, canals, pipelines, and other linear projects.
•  Construction surveys : Surveys which are required for establishment of points, lines, grades, and for staking out engineering works (after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has been done).
  Astronomic surveys : To determine the Latitude Longitude (of the observation station) and azimuth (of a line through observation station) from astronomical observation.

•  Mine surveys : To carry out surveying specific for opencast and underground mining purposes

Submitted by- Govind Kolhe

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