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Thursday, 3 May 2018

Some important question in civil engineering

1.What are the foundation and Main objectives of foundation?
2.what is Honeycomb In Concrete?
3.what is Shrinkage and types of shrinkage?
4.TYPES OF ESTIMATE?
5.What is D.S.R?
6.What is Lapping?
7.Type of SLAB?
8.What is COLUMN?
9.what is Neck Column?
10.What is a beam?
11.What is BBS?
12.What is the shear wall?
13. What is shear stress and strain?
14.what is the shear force?
15. what is the maximum deflection in beams?
16.What is the use of Quick Command and how to use this command?
17.What is the use of Ortho, Dynamic input, Infer constraint.
18.What is the use of convert,reference, baseline spacing Command in AutoCAD?
19.what is Conventional Slab.

20.how to calculate Depth of a foundation.

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

More than any other engineering discipline, Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome of a of a long and distinguished history. Our profession, second oldest, would be better appreciated if we were to develop a sense of our evolution.

1.1 Before the Greeks

2. Throughout antiquity, structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science. No record exists of any rational consideration, either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of structural materials. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and experience, which were passed from generation to generation, guarded by secrets of the guild, and seldom supplemented by new knowledge. Despite this, structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids, Via Appia, aqueducs, Colisseums, Gothic cathedrals to name a few).

3. The first structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep, one of only two commoners to be deified. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3,000 B.C., and yielded great influence over ancient Egypt.

4. Hamurrabi’s code in Babylonia (1750 BC) included among its 282 laws penalties for those “architects” whose houses collapsed, Fig. 1.1.

1.2 Greeks
5 The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B.C.) founded his famous school, which was primarily a secret religious society, at Crotona in southern Italy. At his school he allowed.

Archimed conqueror of Syracuse. 1.3 Romans 10 Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the apparently were more practical, and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent fighters and builders. 11 As the roman empire expanded, the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the Via Appia, Cassia, Aurelia; Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the Rhine built by Caesars), and stadium (Colliseum). 12 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon,

CONSTRUCTION VOCABULARY

Air return: A series of ducts in air conditioning system to return used air to the air handler to be reconditioned.

Anchor Bolts: (also called J-bolts) Bolts embedded in concrete foundation used to hold sills in place.

Anchor Straps: Straps embedded in concrete foundation used to hold sills in place, most commonly MASAs in our houses.

Apron: A piece of the driveway between sidewalk and curb.

Back Fill: The replacement of dirt in holes, trenches and around foundations.

Backing (aka blocking) a non-structural (usually 2x) framed support (i.e. for drywall).

Balloon Framing: A special situationally required type of construction with studs that are longer than the standard length..

Bay: The space between two parallel framing members (i.e. trusses).

Beam: A horizontal structural member running between posts, columns or walls.

Bearing wall (aka partition): A wall which carries a vertical structural load in addition to its own weight.

Bevel: To cut an angle other than a right angle, such as on the edge of a board. Bird block (aka frieze board):An attic vent located between truss tails.

Bird’s Mouth: A notch cut in the underside of a rafter to fit the top plate.

Blocking (aka backing): A non-structural 2x framing support (i.e. for drywall)

Board: Lumber less than 2” thick.

Board Foot: The equivalent of a board 1’ square and 1” thick.

Box Header: A horizontal structural member over an opening having a rectangular cross-section with a hole in the middle, which we fill with insulation.

Building Code: A collection of rules and regulations for construction established by organizations based on experience and experiment, and enacted and enforced by local municipalities. California corner: A framing member used at the intersection of two walls, consisting of three studs nailed together to form a U-shaped cross-section.

Camber: The slight arch in a beam or truss which prevents it from bending into a downward shape under normal load.

Cantilevered: Extending horizontally beyond support.

Cant Strip: A triangular shaped strip used under the edges of roofing by walls on flat roofs.

Cased Opening: An interior opening without a door that is finished with jamb and trim. Caulking: A flexible material used to seal a gap in a joint

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